IMMUNITY has become a key word and concern in Medical Parlance as well as in the Commercial world , with so many urban class people, chatting and seeking Immunity enhancing products – even though this priceless natural treasure has been already gifted to human beings. Scores of Banners and Advertisements are floating around, to befool the innocent takers to buy these Immunity – enhancing products . Anxiety – driven people are aggressively brainwashed to seek Immunity – as a paid merchandise, from multiple media-driven platforms.
INNATE IMMUNITY When the human body is faced with a new pathogen, the immediate immunological response that happens is termed as INNATE IMMUNITY. INNATE literally means in-built or naturally endowed.
Cellular Components of INNATE IMMUNITY are Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Macrophages, Mast cells, Dendritic cells, Natural Killer cells, NK T-cells. Remember Macrophages and Dendritic cells originate from MONOCYTES.
Humoral Components of Innate Immunity are Complements, CRP, Anti-microbial Peptides, LPS binding proteins and Mannose-binding proteins.
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY The sequential SECOND RESPONSE of the human body to the pathogen, after a careful analysis, is called ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY. Here the Innate Immunity gives enough time for the Immune System to give a more targeted response to tackle the invading pathogen.
Three eventualities ( any one ) can now happen
Innate Immunity kills the pathogen and the illness is prevented .
Both Innate and Adaptive Immunity kill the pathogen, with a combined action .
The Pathogen survives both the attacks, and proceeds further to cause illness, overcoming the above two modes of immunity.
Therefore, Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity is the body’s step wise response that happens as an organised sequence to counter any pathogen.
BARRIER IMMUNITY There are FOUR in-built Immunity providing Anatomical and Physiological elements , that give a Barricade like protection that disallows the entry of an infecting bug, and these are listed below
SKIN is the biggest organ in the body and physically covers all the inner body tissues.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM : The Muco-ciliary action of the Respiratory Tree lining attempts to throw out the bug.
LYSOZYMES present in TEARS and SALIVA deactivates the pathogen by a neutralizing action.
LOW GASTRIC pH is the potent acidic milieu that kills pathogens effectively.
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY has two wings to fly : Humoral Immunity and Cell-mediated Immunity
This is via ANTIBODIES , generated by Plasma cells, which are thereafter released in the Blood , gastric and mucus secretions, and of course, Breast Milk . Antibodies in these body fluids can bind pathogens and mark them for destruction by PHAGOCYTES, before they can infect healthy cells..
HUMORAL immunity comes as a QUICK RESPONSE and is launched in the early phase of infection, however, CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY is a late responder .
This is executed by T – CELLS, which are born in the Bone Marrow from hemopoetic Stem Cells, mature and differentiate in the Thymus ( T is for Thymus ) and then they are vital for controlling and shaping the immune responses.
Immune mediated Cell Death is carried out by CD8+ killer cells and CD4+ helper cells, that directly kill virus infected cells. CYTOKINES released by them also help recruit other cells to strengthen the immune response.
Another class named as REGULATORY T – cells effectively checks and regulates the immune responses and disallows an AUTO-IMMUNE type of damaging influence, by providing a critical mechanism of TOLERANCE. This T-cell category becomes further empowered in PREGNANCY , in order to safeguard the foetus from any immune mediated excesses.
HOW DO VACCINES provide PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY
VACCINE stimulated Immunological protection is a form of ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
Such VACCINE derived benefit involves both components : HUMORAL as well as CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
TAKE HOME MESSAGE
There is NO NEED to buy Immunity. Just preserve and enrich your own IMMUNITY TREASURY with sufficient sleep of 7-8 hours , healthy foods, adequate dose of micro-nutrients, mental well-being, moderate exercise and ADEQUATE COVID APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR esp. a good quality FACE MASK.
Blog Concept :
Dr . Dhananjay Shah
40 years of clinical work
33 years of IAP activities
Fellow IAP since 2006
worthy candidate for IAP NATIONAL PRESIDENT in the next elections.
Interactive on 9898003607
This BLOG is for knowledge sharing and should be FAST FORWARDED to maximum colleagues and students of Medicine.